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Table 1 Genotoxicity of TiO 2 NPs in vivo studies

From: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data

Reference No. Crystalline structure Exposure mode Dose Test type Result
[32] P25 (75% anatase, 25% rutile) Drink water (C57Bl/6Jmice) 60, 120, 300, and 600 μg/ml Comet assay (+)
Micronuclei assay (PCE) (+)
γ-H2AX assay (+)
Immunostaining assay (+)
RT-PCR(TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL8) (+)
RT-PCR(TGF-β, IL-10, IL-4) (−)
[115] Nano-TiO2 intragastric administration 100,1000, and 5000 mg/kg Micronuclei assay (PCE) (−)
[142] (20 nm), rutile (80 nm) Inhalation (C57BL/6J mice) 200 μg/ml ELISA assay (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF) (+)
[145] Anatase Inhalation (ICR mice) 0, 5,10, and 50 mg/kg RT-PCR (IKK1, IKK2, NF-κB, NF-κBP52, NF-κBP65, TNF-α, and NIK) (+)
ELISA (IKK1, IKK2, NF-κB, NF-κBP52, NF-κBP65, TNF-α, and NIK) (+)
[146] Anatase Intragastric administration (ICR mice) 0, 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg mRNA expression (NF-κB, TNF-α, Hsp70, IL-1α, MIF, INF-γ, TGF-β, CRP, CYP1A, IL-4,6,8,10,18) (+)
ELISA (NF-κB, TNF-α, Hsp70, IL-1α, MIF, INF-γ, TGF-β, CRP, CYP1A, IL-4,6,8,10,18) (+)
[147] Anatase Intratracheal instillation (ICR mice) 0, 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg RT-PCR (NF-κB, IκB, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, IL-6, IL-1α, COX-2, HO-1, CYP1A1 and HSP-70) (+)
ELISA (NF-κB, IκB, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, IL-6, IL-1α, COX-2, HO-1, CYP1A1 and HSP-70) (+)
[148] Anatase, 100% Intraperitoneal injection (ICR mice) 0, 5, 50, 150 mg/kg RT-PCR (caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, Bcl-2, and cytochrome c) (+)
ELISA (caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, Bcl-2, and cytochrome c) (+)
[149] UV-Titanium (rutile, 17 nm) Inhalation (C57BL/6BomTac mice) 42 mg/m3 DNA strand breaks (−)
DNA microarrays (Cyp26b1, Ttr, and Ugt3a2) (+)
RT-PCR (Cyp26b1, Ttr, and Ugt3a2) (−)
[150] P20 (coated with polyalcohol) Inhalation (C57BL/6BomTac mice) 42.4 mg/m3 Gene Expression Analysis (Copine5, Saa1, and Saa3) (−)
DNA microarray (−)
PCR (cxcl-5, cxcl1, ccl2, ccl22, ccl7, ccr4, and TNF) (+)
[151] UV-Titanium (coated with polyalcohol, 20.6nm) Inhalation (C57BL/6J mice) 42.4 mg/m3 Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) assays (−)
[152] TiO2 (97%) Inhalation (C57BL/6J mice) 0, 0.8, 7.2, 28.5 mg/m3 Micronuclei assay (PCE) (−)
Comet assay (−)
[153] P25 (15 nm, ultrafine) Inhalation (Wistar rats) 10.4 mg/m3 DNA adduct (+)
[178] Anatase Intraperitioneal injection (ICR mice) 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg DNA damage (+)
  1. (+) Positive; (−) Negative.