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Table 3 Predictors of placental global methylation in mother-newborn pairs ( n= 240)

From: Placental DNA hypomethylation in association with particulate air pollution in early life

Variables β SE p-value
Maternal characteristics
  Age, y 0.0005 0.005 0.93
  Pre-gestational BMI, kg/m2 0.002 0.005 0.68
  Net weight gain, kg 0.002 0.004 0.54
  Maternal education    
   Low Ref -  
   Middle -0.071 0.081 0.38
   High -0.076 0.077 0.33
  Smoking    
   Never-smoker Ref -  
   Past-smoker -0.133 0.067 0.05
   Smoker -0.102 0.068 0.13
  Acetaminophen    
   No Ref -  
   Yes 0.129 0.049 0.009
  Alcohola    
   No Ref -  
   Yes -0.036 0.065 0.58
  Parity    
   1 Ref -  
   2 0.054 0.053 0.31
   ≥ 3 0.074 0.085 0.38
Newborn characteristics    
  Newborn’s gender    
   Male Ref -  
   Female -0.108 0.049 0.03
  Ethnicityb    
   European Ref -  
   Non-European -0.020 0.074 0.78
  Gestational age, w 0.028 0.019 0.15
  Birth weight, g 0.0001 0.00006 0.06
  Birth length, cm 0.026 0.013 0.05
Time related characteristics    
  Seasonc    
   Fall Ref -  
   Winter 0.096 0.067 0.15
   Spring 0.351 0.070 < 0.0001
   Summer 0.097 0.065 0.14
  Apparent temperature, °C    
   Trimester 1 0.019 0.004 < 0.0001
   Trimester 2 0.006 0.004 0.15
   Trimester 3 -0.021 0.004 < 0.0001
  1. β-estimate is an absolute change in percentage of global DNA methylation.
  2. aData available for 235 and b238 subjects.
  3. cSeason determined for date of conception.