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Table 4 Relative difference in global DNA methylation in placental tissue in association with in utero exposure to particulate air pollution (PM 2.5 ) ( n= 240)

From: Placental DNA hypomethylation in association with particulate air pollution in early life

Multi-lag model, PM 2.5 a, b Relative difference 95% CI p-value
Trimester 1 (1-13w) -2.13% -3.71 to -0.54% 0.009
Trimester 2 (14-26w) -0.43% -1.84 to 0.98% 0.55
Trimester 3 (27w-delivery) 0.74% -0.85 to 2.33% 0.36
  1. aAll the three trimester exposures were fitted as independent variables in the same regression model. The effect size is a relative difference (95% CI) in mean placental global DNA methylation for each 5 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure (μg/m3).
  2. bAdjusted for newborn’s gender, maternal age, gestational age, parity, maternal education, smoking status, prenatal acetaminophen use, season at conception and trimester-specific apparent temperature.