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Table 1 Characteristics and exposure levels of the study participants

From: Evolutionary age of repetitive element subfamilies and sensitivity of DNA methylation to airborne pollutants

Study 1a Exposure to metal-rich particulate matter (PM)    Highly-exposed steel workers (n=20) Low-exposed controls (n=20)
PM10 [μg/m3] Mean ± SD 203.7 ± 22.9 100.9 ± 28.9
Range [152.2 ; 227.9] [73.7 ; 150.0]
Participants’ characteristics Age [Years], mean ± SD 42.4 ± 7.9 37.8 ± 3.0
Ex/current smokers, n (%) 12 (60) 14 (70)
Study 2b Exposure to air benzene    Gas station attendants (n=20) Low-exposed controls (n=20)
Air benzene [μg/m3] Mean ± SD 78.6 ± 42.5 7.0 ± 5.5
Range [31.2 ; 180.1] [4.2 ; 23.0]
Participants’ characteristics Age [Years], mean ± SD 39.9 ± 11.2 39.7 ± 10.4
Ex/current smokers, n (%) 7 (35) 5 (25)
Study 3c Exposure to traffic-derived elemental carbon    Truck drivers (n=20) Low-exposed controls (n=20)
Elemental carbon [μg/m3] Mean ± SD 21.3 ± 4.7 13.4 ± 2.1
Range [16.6 ; 35.6] [7.8 ; 16.1]
Participants’ characteristics Age [Years], mean ± SD 35.2 ± 5.1 33.4 ± 6.0
   Ex/current smokers, n (%) 8 (40) 6 (30)
  1. The participants were recruited from different occupations and divided in high- and low-exposed group according to their personal levels of exposure.
  2. a Steel workers with Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter <=10 μm [PM10] >152.2 μg/m3 in the highly-exposed group; steel workers with PM10<150.0 μg/m3 in the low-exposed control group.
  3. b Gas station attendants in the highly-exposed group; indoor office workers in the low-exposed control group.
  4. c Truck drivers in the highly-exposed group; indoor office workers in the low-exposed control group.