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Table 4 Oxidative stress in mouse kidney after intragastric administration of TiO 2 NPs for 90 consecutive days

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Intragastric exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced nephrotoxicity in mice, assessed by physiological and gene expression modifications

Oxidative stress TiO2NPs (mg/kg BW)
  0 2.5 5 10
O2 .- (nmol/mg prot. min) 18 ± 0.9a 25 ± 1.23b 38 ± 1.91c 43 ± 2.15d
H2O2 (nmol/mg prot. min) 31 ± 1.55a 46 ± 2.28b 77 ± 3.845c 92 ± 4.6d
MDA (μmol/ mg prot) 1.02 ± 0.05a 1.97 ± 0.10b 3.05 ± 0.15c 4.88 ± 0.24d
Carbonyl (μmol/mg prot) 0.51 ± 0.03a 1.13 ± 0.06b 1.89 ± 0.09c 2.79 ± 0.14d
8-OHdG (mg/g tissue) 0.48 ± 0.02a 2.16 ± 0.11b 3.58 ± 0.18c 5.87 ± 0.29d
  1. Different letters indicate significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). Values represent means ± SEM (N = 5).