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Table 1 TiO 2 NP powder characterization assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)

From: Rat pulmonary responses to inhaled nano-TiO2: effect of primary particle size and agglomeration state

  Parameters Methods Results
5 nm Morphology TEM Spherical: > 97%
n = 375    Rod-shape: < 3%
   
Crystal phase XRD Anatase: > 97% (volume)
Rutile: < 3%
Size (nm) TEM 53.3% between 3 and 11
Median: 10.6
Min: 3.9 and max: 75.6
10-30 nm Morphology TEM Spherical
n = 330 Crystal phase XRD Anatase: 100% (volume)
No rutile detected
   
Size (nm) TEM 67.6% between 11 and 31
Median: 18.2
Min: 4.9 and max: 70
50 nm Morphology TEM Spherical: > 80%
n = 302    Rod-shape: < 20%
Crystal phase XRD Anatase: > 80% (volume)
Size (nm) TEM Rutile: < 20%
   47% between 31 and 61
Median: 34.8
    Min: 8.6 and max: 112