Instillation of DEP induces pulmonary inflammation and alveolar remodelling. Representative lung sections from (a) saline-instilled and (b) DEP-instilled ApoE−/− mice showing airway fibrosis and cuffing of pulmonary blood vessels. Inset: High power image showing particle-laden macrophages deep within the airspaces. Scale bars = 100 μm. (c) Total cell counts in BALF. (d) Cell differentials in BALF. Mean ± S.E.M. (n = 7-9 for all) *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, unpaired t- test comparing DEP with saline control in same animal type. ApoE−/− were fed Western diet for 8 weeks, whereas wild-type mice were fed normal chow.