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Table 3 BALF cellular and biochemical parameters following single exposures to TiO 2 NPs at different dose rates

From: Equivalent titanium dioxide nanoparticle deposition by intratracheal instillation and whole body inhalation: the effect of dose rate on acute respiratory tract inflammation

A) Whole body inhalation
  Air Controls TiO2
Post exposure time   4 hr 8 hr 24 hr low dose 24 hr high dose 7 days
Cell viability (%) 95.6 ± 1.2 95.1 ± 0.7 94.9 ± 0.9 94.7 ± 1.0 92.5 ± 2.3 95.5 ± 1.4
Total cells (Number × 10 7 ) 1.39 ± 0.21 1.53 ± 0.07 1.41 ± 0.10 1.62 ± 0.14* 1.32 ± 0.07 1.41 ± 0.16
Alveolar macrophages (%) 99.2 ± 0.3 98.7 ± 1.1 98.6 ± 0.7 97.6 ± 0.9 92.7 ± 1.4 99.0 ± 0.5
(Number × 10 7 ) (1.36 ± 0.2) (1.52 ± 0.07) (1.39 ± 0.11) (1.58 ± 0.12) (1.22 ± 0.07) (1.40 ± 0.16)
Neutrophils (%) 0.5 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 0.6 6.2 ± 1.5 0.6 ± 0.4
(Number × 10 5 ) (1.26 ± 0.69) (1.01 ± 1.41) (1.14 ± 0.70) (2.59 ± 1.08) (8.18 ± 1.86)* (0.89 ± 0.56)
Lymphocytes (%) a 0.3 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.4
(Number × 10 4 ) b (3.92 ± 3.31) (10.12 ± 14.05) (5.41 ± 4.91) (13.92 ± 7.67) (14.89 ± 2.34) (8.45 ± 4.99)
LDH release (nmol/min/mL) 39.82 ± 3.98 49.31 ± 4.91* 55.01 ± 3.18* 59.91 ± 19.37 38.93 ± 4.99 42.31 ± 2.37
β-Glucuronidase activity (nmol/min/mL) c 0.18 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.03* 0.11 ± 0.03* 0.37 ± 0.11* 0.20 ± 0.02 .20 ± 0.03
BALF Protein (mg/mL) c 0.13 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0.02* 0.15 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.04
B) Intratracheal instillation
  Saline Controls TiO 2
Post exposure time   4 hr 8 hr 24 hr low dose 24 hr high dose 7 days
Cell viability (%) 95.6 ± 1.1 96.0 ± 0.3 94.7 ± 1.3 94.1 ± 0.8 94.5 ± 1.7 93.7 ± 0.7
Total cells (Number × 10 7 ) 1.52 ± 0.18 1.39 ± 0.14 1.40 ± 0.32* 1.66 ± 0.08 2.09 ± 0.11*Φ 1.50 ± 0.06
Alveolar macrophages (%) 98.4 ± 0.3 95.0 ± 2.6 89.4 ± 6.9*Φ 95.5 ± 1.4 67.7 ± 3.1*Φ 96.6 ± 1.3
(Number 10 7 ) (1.54 ± 0.12) (1.32 ± 0.11) (1.23 ± 0.17)* (1.59 ± 0.09) (1.41 ± 0.08) (1.45 ± 0.04)
Neutrophils (%) 1.0 ± 0.2 3.8 ± 2.8*Φ 9.8 ± 7.1*Φ 3.7 ±1.4* 31.1 ± 2.6*Φ 1.9 ± 1.7
(Number × 10 5 ) (1.47 ± 0.43) (5.52 ± 4.35)*Φ (15.46 ± 15.42)*Φ (6.10 ± 2.31)*Φ (65.02 ± 6.56)*Φ (2.84 ± 2.66)
Lymphocytes (%) a 0.7 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.8 0.9 ± 0.2
(Number × 10 4 ) b (9.55 ± 2.68) (9.95 ± 3.03) (10.33 ± 3.76) (13.74 ± 1.18) (25.00 ± 18.38) (13.19 ± 3.34)
LDH release (nmol/min/mL) 46.32 ± 7.36 47.99 ± 3.78 55.19 ± 5.76 68.01 ± 9.12* 76.59 ± 4.15*Φ 58.60 ± 4.22*Φ
β-Glucuronidase activity (nmol/min/mL) c 0.22 ± 0.03 0.10 ± 0.03* 0.15 ± 0.02* 0.30 ± 0.06 0.52 ± 0.07*Φ 0.30 ± 0.05*Φ
BALF protein (mg/mL) c 0.12 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.01*Φ 0.07 ± 0.00* 0.14 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.01
  1. Values are group means (n = 5) ± SD for inhalation (4 hr duration) and instillation exposures at 4, 8, 24 hr and 7 days post beginning of exposure. *, significantly different from corresponding controls; Φ, significantly different from whole body inhalation at the same post-exposure time point; a, main effects of both time and exposure method; b, main effect of exposure method (p < 0.05); c, one outlier was identified through analysis of the residuals and removed.