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Table 4 Inflammatory mediator and oxidative stress release in BALF and lung homogenates following TiO 2 NP exposure at different dose rates

From: Equivalent titanium dioxide nanoparticle deposition by intratracheal instillation and whole body inhalation: the effect of dose rate on acute respiratory tract inflammation

A) Whole body inhalation
  Air Controls TiO2
Post exposure time   4 hr 8 hr 24 hr low dose 24 hr high dose 7 days
BALF MCP-1 (pg/mg protein) 5878 ± 1292 6879 ± 3514 7285 ± 4762 17620 ± 3629* 6936 ± 1590 9112 ± 1977
BALF MIP-2 (pg/mg protein) 1592 ± 456 1022 ± 787 893 ± 491 957 ± 343 1696 ± 194 1526 ± 424
Homogenate MCP-1 (pg/mg protein) 578 ± 52 564 ± 64 551 ± 18 527 ± 68 582 ± 72 621 ± 39
Homogenate MIP-2 (pg/mg protein) 18.85 ± 3.84 13.76 ± 1.36 14.21 ± 1.88 18.59 ± 3.67 15.23 ± 4.02 19.29 ± 2.91
Homogenate TNF-α (pg/mg protein) 4.66 ± 0.71 4.14 ± 0.95 4.21 ± 0.42 4.79 ± 0.56 4.23 ± 0.75 4.22 ± 0.32
Homogenate IL-10 (pg/mg protein) a 10.85 ± 0.74 9.53 ± 0.99 10.16 ± 0.60 10.12 ± 1.14 10.16 ± 1.22 9.71 ± 1.20
Homogenate HO-1 (ng/mg protein) 1.62 ± 0.15 1.45 ± 0.10 1.69 ± 0.41 1.56 ± 0.19 1.74 ± 0.18 1.60 ± 0.25
BAL pellet HO-1 (ng/mg protein) b 101 ± 14 91 ± 53 118 ± 28 104 ± 9 134 ± 13 121 ± 11
B) Intratracheal instillation
  Saline Controls TiO 2
Post exposure time   4 hr 8 hr 24 hr low dose 24 hr high dose 7 days
BALF MCP-1 (pg/mg protein) 9026 ± 2037 10770 ± 5619 12590 ± 3402 19340 ± 1913.70* 66450 ± 8421*Φ 18430.00 ± 3593*
BALF MIP-2 (pg/mg protein) 2008 ± 2486 2114 ± 1309 1932 ± 501 1413 ± 412 779 ± 508 1240 ± 428
Homogenate MCP-1 (pg/mg protein) 1084 ± 231Φ 1774 ± 525*Φ 2084 ± 473*Φ 429 ± 40* 1647 ± 287*Φ 1087 ± 249Φ
Homogenate MIP-2 (pg/mg protein) 8.64 ± 2.71Φ 21.23 ± 2.68*Φ 30.53 ± 5.86*Φ 6.78 ± 0.64*Φ 11.87 ± 4.29 13.12 ± 1.97
Homogenate TNF-α (pg/mg protein) 3.86 ± 0.89 5.19 ± 0.54 5.51 ± 0.68* 3.76 ± 0.59 4.44 ± 0.53 4.21 ± 0.37
Homogenate IL-10 (pg/mg protein) a 8.83 ± 2.12 10.26 ± 2.61 9.79 ± 1.77 7.27 ± 1.41 8.82 ± 2.10 7.22 ± 1.22
Homogenate HO-1 (ng/mg protein) 1.80 ± 0.58 2.79 ± 0.42*Φ 2.56 ± 0.17*Φ 1.27 ± 0.08* 3.38 ± 0.49*Φ 1.51 ± 0.34
BAL pellet HO-1 (ng/mg protein) b 101 ± 16 96 ± 6 124 ± 15 114 ± 17 135 ± 31 118 ± 6
  1. Values are group means (n = 5) ± SD for inhalation (4 hr duration) and instillation exposures at 4, 8, 24 hr and 7 days post beginning of exposure. *, significantly different from corresponding controls; Φ, significantly different from whole body inhalation at the same post-exposure time point; a, significant main effect of exposure method; b, significant main effect of time (p < 0.05).