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Table 5 BALF cellular and biochemical parameters following repeated exposures to TiO 2 NPs at different dose rates

From: Equivalent titanium dioxide nanoparticle deposition by intratracheal instillation and whole body inhalation: the effect of dose rate on acute respiratory tract inflammation

  Whole body inhalation Intratracheal instillation
Air TiO2 Saline TiO2
Cell viability (%) 95.1 ± 1.4 95.1 ± 2.5 95.0 ± 2.3 94.2 ± 0.8
Total cells (Number ×10 7 ) 1.33 ± 0.10 1.17 ± 0.23 1.68 ± 0.06Φ 2.20 ± 0.22*Φ
Alveolar macrophages (%) 98.7 ± 0.4 97.7 ± 0.5 97.9 ± 0.6 81.2 ± 3.8*Φ
(Number ×10 7 ) 1.31 ± 0.10 1.14 ± 0.22 1.64 ± 0.06Φ 1.79 ± 0.23
Neutrophils (%) 0.8 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.6* 1.2 ± 0.3 16.8 ± 3.6*Φ
(Number ×10 5 ) 1.02 ± 0.36 1.96 ± 1.00 2.00 ± 0.60Φ 36.59 ± 6.60*Φ
Lymphocytes (%) 0.6 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.5 2.1 ± 0.5*Φ
(Number ×10 4 ) 7.62 ± 2.25 7.53 ± 2.45 14.05 ± 7.29 45.99 ± 11.86*Φ
LDH release (nmol/min/mL) 46.83 ± 3.72 61.19 ± 4.62* 41.72 ± 3.48 58.81 ± 9.43*
β-Glucuronidase activity (nmol/min/mL) 0.25 ± 0.06 0.25 ± 0.09 0.33 ± 0.09 0.40 ± 0.20
BALF protein (mg/mL) a 0.12 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01
  1. Values are group means (n = 5) ± SD for inhalation (4 hr duration) and instillation exposures at 24 hr post beginning of exposure. *, significantly different from corresponding controls; Φ, significantly different from whole body inhalation at the same post-exposure time point; a, significant main effect of TiO2 exposure (p < 0.05).