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Figure 3 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Figure 3

From: Cytokine release from alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter: Heterogeneity in relation to size, city and season

Figure 3

The concentrations of selected elements in the PM samples presented together with the respective PM-induced IL-6 from alveolar rat macrophages after exposure to 20 μg/ml of coarse (C) and fine (F) fraction collected in Oslo, Rome, Lodz and Amsterdam in spring (upper), summer (middle) and winter (lower) seasons. IL-6 release is shown on the left ordinate, values in diagram are mean ± SEM (n = 3). Concentration of elements is shown on the right ordinate (ng/mg PM). Indicated values in the diagram for Fe and Al should be multiplied by 103, values for Zn and Cu by 102 and values for V by 101.

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