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Table 1 Recommendations for measuring exposure during inhalation studies

From: Principles for characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials: elements of a screening strategy

Metric Measurement Recommendation
Mass – off-line E (coupled with on-line)
Mass – on-line E
Size distribution – off line E
Size distribution – on line E/D
Surface area – off line O
Surface area – on line O
Number – off line N
Number – on line E
  1. E: These measurements are considered to be essential.
  2. D: These measurements are considered to provide valuable information, but are not recommended as essential due to constraints associated with complexity, cost and availability.
  3. O: These measurements are considered to provide valuable but non-essential exposure information.
  4. N: These measurements are not considered to be of significant value to inhalation studies.