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Table 4 Surfactants commonly used to stabilise Nanoparticles during their synthesis.

From: The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC

Substance Dispersible in:
4-Dimethylaminopyridine Water
Mercaptoundecaneacid Water
Thiols (e.g. Dodecanethiol) Unpolar solvents like Hexane, Toluene, Chloroform, Acetone
Tetraalkylhalogenides Unpolar solvents like Hexane, Toluene, Chloroform, Acetone
Fluoralkanes Unpolar solvents like Hexane, Toluene, Chloroform, Acetone
Trialkoxy-Silanes and derivates thereof Water, Alcohol
Phosphorous containing substances like Ph2PC6H4SO3Na pH dependent in water or unpolar solvents
Aminoalkanes and derivates thereof Dependent on functionalisation unpolar solvents or Alcohol
  1. These substances are likely to be on the surface throughout the lifetime of the particle