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Table 5 Comparison of attributes of lung overload in rats vs. larger mammals such as dogs and primates (nonhuman and human) for particles with low solubility

From: The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC

Classical attributes and sequelae of lung overload in rats Rats Dog, monkey and man
Chronic pulmonary inflammation yes not certain
Hyperplasia of macrophages and epithelial cells yes not certain
Altered pulmonary clearance (overwhelmed) macrophage mediated clearance yes probably not
Large alveolar burdens of particles yes probably not
Increased interstitialization of deposited particles yes yes- greater % than rat
Increased translocation of particles from lung to thoracic lymph nodes probably probably
Interstitial lung disease (fibrosis) yes yes but less severe
Production of lung tumours yes no