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Table 2 Effect of Exposure to UFTiO2 vs. FTiO2 (High Dose) on Pulmonary Responses.

From: Pulmonary response to intratracheal instillation of ultrafine versus fine titanium dioxide: role of particle surface area

Parameter Group 1 day 7 days 42 days
PMN (106) Control 1.4 ± 0.1 0.78 ± 0.07 0.88 ± 0.10
  UFTiO2 high 23.8 ± 1* 25.5 ± 3* 18.3 ± 1*
  FTiO 2 high 15.6 ± 0.9* 19.8 ± 0.7* 10.8 ± 0.4*
LDH (U/l) Control 46.3 ± 2 39.5 ± 1.35 37.3 ± 2
  UFTiO2 high 337.4 ± 3* 323.5 ± 3* 239.9 ± 5*
  FTiO 2 high 307.6 ± 5* 288.1 ± 5* 175.6 ± 4*
Albumin Control 0.07 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.003 0.09 ± 0.007
  UFTiO2 high 0.38 ± 0.04* 0.51 ± 0.02* 0.40 ± 0.01*
  FTiO 2 high 0.21 ± 0.055* 0.40 ± 0.01* 0.30 ± 0.01*
TNF-α (pg/ml) Control 25.7 ± 0.6 23.1 ± 0.7 25.86 ± 0.8
  UFTiO2 high 67.4 ± 2.2* 73.5 ± 1.5* 88.5 ± 4.4*
  FTiO 2 high 60.7 ± 1.7* 58.5 ± 2.8* 55.4 ± 1.3*
MIP-2 (pg/ml) Control 517.9 ± 12 601.8 ± 26 643.6 ± 7
  UFTiO2 high 802.9 ± 28* 886.9 ± 21* 893.5 ± 26*
  FTiO 2 high 695.6 ± 15* 847.1 ± 43* 852.1 ± 22*
IL-1β (pg/ml) Control 75.9 ± 6 82.2 ± 6 91.9 ± 8
  UFTiO2 high 167.5 ± 13* 230.4 ± 14* 273.6 ± 14*
  FTiO 2 high 119.9 ± 13 131.5 ± 11* 180.3 ± 14*
Zym. Stim. Chemi. Control 0.53 ± .08 0.50 ± .05 0.51 ± .05
  UFTiO2 high 4.4 ± .51* 4.4 ± .47* 4.2 ± .48*
  FTiO 2 high 2.6 ± .26* 2.8 ± .35* 1.4 ± .27
NO Dep. Chemi. Control 4.3 ± .06 0.45 ± .11 0.39 ± .08
  UFTiO2 high 3.3 ± .11* 2.2 ± .27* 1.0 ± .12*
  FTiO 2 high 2.6 ± .20* 0.28 ± .04 0.230 ± .04
  1. Comparison of pulmonary toxicity parameters measured in control animals and for animals receiving the high doses (1.04 and 21.41 mg/rat) of UFTiO2 and FTiO2 at all post-exposure time points. * denotes that the change from control is statistically significant (p < 0.05) using ANOVA.