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Table 1 Overview of animal studies with maternal inhalation exposure to whole diesel exhaust

From: Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice

Diesel particulate in air (mg/m 3 ) Particle size Study type Animal species Exposure period (GD) Maternal measures (n) Offspring endpoints (n) Ref.
0.3
1.0
3.0
MMAD 0.4 T(13) M 2–13
12 h/day
(23–30)
Implantations
Litter size
Sex ratio
Placentas:
-weight [↑1.0]
-congestion
-abnormal
-inflammatory cytokines [↑0.3, 3.0]
Fetal weight [↓3.0]
Rate of abnormal fetuses
[5]
0.3
1.0
3.0
MMAD 0.4 P M From four months before gestation to mating
12 h/day
(10–12)
Abnormal delivery
Nest construction [↓all]
Weights:
-ovaries
-vagina
-uterus [↓1.0]
(4–22)
Weight, PND11 [♂↑0.3], 14, 21 [♀↓3.0], 28 [↓3.0], 35 [↓3.0], 42 [↓0.1, 3.0], 49 [↓0.1♂, 3.0], 56 [↓1.0, 3.0], 63 [↓1.0♀, 3.0], 70 [↓3.0]
Vaginal opening [↓0.3, 1.0]
Anogenital distance PND28 [♂↓0.3], 70 [♂↓3.0]
♀ Weights, PND28
-thymus [↓3.0]
-ovary [↓3.0]
♀ Weights, PND70
-adrenals [↓1.0]
-liver [↓1.0]
-thymus [↓0.3, 1.0]
♂ Weights, PND 70
-adrenals [↓1.0]
-testes [↓1.0]
-seminal vesicles [↓1.0]
External malformations
[4]
0.1   T(13) M 2-3+6-10+13
8 h/day
(15–16)
Body weight
Implantations
Total placental weight
(22)
Litter size
Gender ratio
Total fetal weight
Bone morphogenetic protein 15[↓]
[20]
1.71 or
0.17 (Filtered, pore size estimated to 0.1–0.2 μm)
  P R 7–20
6 h/day
(7–8) (7–14)
Gender ratio
Weight, PND 96:
-body
-testis
-epididymis
Daily sperm production [↓]
Spermatids [↓]
Sertoli cells [↓]
Spermatids/Sertoli cell [↓]
FSH [↓]
LH
Testosterone
[11]
5.6 or
Filtered (pore size 0.05 μm)
90% < 0.5 μm T(20) R 7–20
6 h/day
(22–24)
Body weight
Implantations
Weights:
-placenta [↓, non-filtered]
-adrenal gland [↓, filtered]
-thymus [↓]
-ovary [↓]
Corpora lutea [smaller]
Testosterone [↑]
Progesterone
Estradiol [↓, filtered]
LH [↓, filtered]
FSH
ACTH
Hydroxycorticosteroids, urinary
(6–24)
Fetal weight [females↑]
Litter size
Gender ratio
External malformations
Anogenital distance [↑]
Thymus weight [↓]
Testis differentiation [↓]
Ovary differentation [↓]
Thymus differentiation [↓]
[7]
1.73
or
Filtered (pore size 0.05 μm)
90% < 0.5 μm P R 7-20+
PND 1–3
6 h/day
(6–7) (6–20, males only)
Weight PND 4, 49
Organ weights, PND 4, 49, 82:
-thymus [↓]
-Testosterone, PND 4, 23 [↑]
-Estrogen, PND 4, 23
IgE pollen:
-three immunizations
-four immunizations [↑]
[9]
6 ~90% < 1 μ
~50% < 0.3 μ
T(20) R 5–16
8 h/day
Resorptions
Implantations
Corpora luetea [↓]
Gross pathology
Fetal weight
Litter size
Viability
Gender distribution
Malformations
[6]
6 ~90% < 1 μ
~50% < 0.3 μ
T(20) Rabbit 5–16
8 h/day
(20)
Resorptions
Implantations
Corpora lutea
Gross pathology
Fetal weight
Litter size
Viability
Gender distribution
Malformations
[6]
0.3
1.0
3.0
  P M 2–16
12 h/day
(20)
Deaths
(7–14, males only)
Weight, PND 28 [↑1.0, 3.0]
Gender ratio
Organ weights, PND 28
-testes [↑1.0, 3.0]
-epididymis
-accessory glands [↑1.0, 3.0]
LH
Testosterone [↑1.0]
[8]
1.0   P M 2–16
24 h/day
(10) (7–10)
Weight, PND 8 [↓], 16(↓), 21(↓), 35 [↓], 84:
-testis
-epididymis
-seminal vesicle [↑, PND8+16]
Sperm counts [↓PND35+84]
Testis morphology [↑Multinucl. cells PND84]
Testosterone [↓PND21,(↓)PND35, ↑PND84]
mRNA, testes:
-androgen receptor
-estrogen receptor
-LH receptor
-FSH receptor
-steroidogen acute regul protein [↑PND84]
-cytochrome P-450 side-chain cleavage
-3βHSD
-17βHSD
-P450c17
-cytochrome P-450 aromatase
[19]
  1. n: group size. GD: Gestation day. PND: Postnatal day. Study type: P: Postnatal assessment of effects. T(GD): Teratology study, number in brackets designates day of laparatomy. Species: M: Mice. R: Rat. [Square brackets]: indication of dose levels and gender related to exposure associated effect. ↓: decrease; ↑: increase. MMAD: Mass median aerodynamic diameter. LH: Luteinizing hormone. FSH: Follicle stimulating hormone. ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone. HSD: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.