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Table 4 Characteristics of PM fractions

From: Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress

Parameter Coarse (PM2.5-10) Fine (PM2.5) Ultrafine
Size (μm) 2.5 - 10 0.15 - 2.5 < 0.15 μm
Number per μm3 + ++ +++
Mass (μg) per μm3 +++ ++ +
Relative content (% of total mass) *    
   Elemental carbon + ++ +++
   Organic carbon + ++ +++
   PAHs + + +++
   Metals +++ ++ +
Redox activity + ++ +++
   DTT assay ** + ++ +++
   HO-1 induction# + ++ +++
   GSH depletion # + +++ +++
Mitochondrial damage# None Some Extensive
Surface area + ++ +++
Bioavailability of active compounds + ++ +++
Lung penetrability + ++ +++
  1. Modified from Li et al [123]. * Relative content was estimated using mass concentration and fractional composition of CAPs collected on Teflon and quartz filters in two locations from the Los Angeles basin as reported [67]. ** DTT assay was performed on similar CAPs samples [67]. # HO-1 induction, GSH depletion and mitochondrial damage were determined in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and a transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) exposed to similar CAPs samples [67].