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Table 1 The braking behaviours used in the present study.

From: Toxic effects of brake wear particles on epithelial lung cells in vitro

„normal deceleration“ Acceleration in 3rd gear up to 2000 RPM (revolutions per minute). Two minutes of constant 2000 RPM were followed by a deceleration phase of ten seconds to 1750 RPM. The gas pedal position was unchanged during this deceleration phase to simulate the inertia of the car. 8 repetitions (8×) were performed in 16 minutes.
„full stop“ Acceleration in 3rd gear up to 3000 RPM. After two minutes of constant 3000 RPM, a „full stop“ was performed with the gas pedal position unchanged until the engine stalled. The engine then had to be restarted for the next cycle. 4 and 8 repetitions (4× and 8×) were performed in 8 and 16 minutes.
„no stop run“ Acceleration in 3rd gear to 2'000 RPM with the speed remaining stable throughout the entire measurement cycle of 16 minutes.