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Table 5 Description of the study population clinical characteristics: current non-smoking subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

From: Association of cardiac and vascular changes with ambient PM2.5 in diabetic individuals

Clinical Characteristics N = 22 individuals
Disease history Total number N (%) or mean (± SD)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus 22 (100)
Time since diabetes diagnosis [yrs] 6.4 (± 5.0)
Hyperlipidemia 19 (86)
Hypertension 19 (86)
Past myocardial infarction 0 (0)
Coronary artery disease 4 (18)
Peripheral vascular disease 3 (14)
Cerebrovascular disease 1 (5)
Diabetic retinopathy 1 (5)
Diabetic nephropathya 8 (36)
Blood marker levels Total number N (%)
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7%b 9 (41)c
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) ≥ 7 ng/mlb 41 (51)d
Ferritin ≥ 60 ng/mlb 36 (41)e
Adiponectin < 3700 ng/mlb 11 (50)f
Homocysteine ≥ 12 μmol/lb 11 (50)c
Medication intake Total number N (%)
Sulfonylureas 10 (45)
Thiazolidinediones 6 (27)
Metformin 14 (64)
Statins 12 (55)
Aspirin 14 (64)
Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (BB) 9 (41)
Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors 12 (55)
Calcium-blockers 2 (9)
Diuretics 8 (36)
Angiotension II-receptor blocker 3 (14)
Estrogen 2 (9)
  1. aBased on the screening urine (>30 μg albumin/mg creatinine) on spot collection
  2. bGlycosylated hemoglobin A1c was only measured once, myeloperoxidase, adiponectin and homocysteine were measured on all four visits. For the interaction analysis with myeloperoxidase all observations per patient were used as it showed high daily variation within individuals. For ferritin all observations per patient were used as there were some single missing observations - however, there was only low daily variation within individuals. For the interaction analysis with adiponectin the mean of the four measurements per individual was used. For homocyteine the mean of the four measurements per individual was calculated.
  3. cData was missing from two subjects.
  4. dData was missing for 8 observations.
  5. eData was missing for 14 observations.
  6. fData was missing from one subject.
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