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Table 1 Translocation of various ENPs via respiratory pathways or via injection to blood and/or CNS

From: Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: A critical review

Material Administration ENP size (nm)** Translocation to blood Translocation to CNS Ref.*
  Inhalation Nasal instillation Injection     
Carbon particles X    4-20 X   [51]
  X    100 X   [46] (human)
   X   36   X [38]
Cu X    23.5 X   [49]
Ir X    2-4 X X [50]
MnO2 X    30 X X [56, 59]
  X    23 X X [62]
Polystyrene X    56.4 X X [48]
  X    202 X X [48]
TiO2 X    20 X   [48]
   X   80, 155 (very high doses)   X [61] (mouse)[64] (mouse)
    X 25-70 (s.c.)   X [65]
    X 25-70 (i.v.)   X [66]
    X 5 (i.p.)   X [67]
Latex particles   X   20-200   X [57, 58] (guinea pigs)
Ag   X   70-110   X [60]
  1. * Studies were performed on rats unless otherwise indicated.
  2. **s.c. = subcutaneous injection; i.v. = intra venous; i.p. = intraperitoneal