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Table 2 Experimental findings of neurobiological effects of specific ENPs

From: Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: A critical review

End-point In vivo In vitro References
Cell morphology changes Al2O3, TiO2 Fe2O3, QDs [11, 61, 67, 69, 70]
Increased inflammation signs and markers MnO2   [56, 62]
Increased oxidative stress TiO2, QDs Degussa P25, ferritin, C60, Ag [61, 67, 69, 72]
Antioxidative effects (inconsistent effects)   CeO, YO, C60 [7376]
Neuron function (inhibition and facilitation) MnO2, Zn, TiO2, QDs Mn, Ag, ZnO, CuO, CNTs, TiO2, QDs [61, 67, 68, 77, 88]
Behaviour (negative effect) MnO2   [62]
Development and differentiation (inconsistent effects) TiO2 Fe2O3, Ag, TiO2 [65, 66, 84]
Accelerated protein fibrillation   TiO2, CNT, QDs, CeO, copolymer particles [86, 87]