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Table 5 Studies focused on the particle release of ENMs by laboratory testing (column 1 indicates the different subcategorisations)

From: Nanoparticle exposure at nanotechnology workplaces: A review

Study Process Materials Instrumentation Metric Results
Powders      
[53] Rotating drum test (free fall, stirring, ...) TiO2 (Aeroxide P25), ZnO SMPS, APS, MOUDI PSD (15 nm - 20 μm), NC, DI < 10% particles < 100 nm60% particles < 1 μm
[65] Rotating drum test (free fall, stirring, ...) TiO2, SiO2, FeO(OH), Mg3Si4O10(OH)2, Al2O3 FMPS, APS, Filtration PSD (5.6 nm - 20 μm), NRP (0.5 μm - 20 μm), NRP (5.6 nm - 560 nm), DI Undefined fraction of particles < 100 nm
[66] Rotating drum test (free fall, stirring, ...) Organoclay, Bentonite FMPS, APS, Filtration PSD (5.6 nm-20 μm), NRP (0.5 μm - 20 μm), NRP (5.6 nm - 560 nm), DI Undefined fraction of particles < 100 nm
[70] Free fall TiO2 (G5), SiO2 (Aerosil 200) ELPI; SEM (ELPI) PSD(30 nm - 10 μm), MC, MC/M Fraction of particles < 100 nm
[71] Fluidized bed TiO2 (Aeroxide P25) SMPS (LDMA, NDMA), APS; TEM (ESP) PSD (4 nm - 20 μm)/NCmax 10% particles < 100 nm
70% particles < 1 μm
[4, 72] Vortex shaker (fluidized bed, agitation) SWCNT, alumina powder SMPS (LDMA, NDMA), APS PSD (4 nm - 20 μm), NC Fraction of particles < 100 nm, alumina powder released more NP than SWCNT
[73] Vortex shaker (fluidized bed) SWCNT, MWCNT, TiO2, ZnO SMPS, HHCPC, APS, OPC PSD (10 nm - 20 μm), NC (10 nm - > 1 μm)/V, NC (10 nm - > 1 μm)/M Fraction of particles < 100 nm
[74] Shaker method MWCNT SMPS, APS, TEM(ESP, CI) PSD (14 nm - 20 μm), NC(dt) Fraction of particles < 100 nm;
peak at 200-300 nm
[75] Fluidized bed with oscillating sieve plate MWCNT SMPS, SEM (TP) PSD (< 1 μm), NC(dt) Fraction of particles < 100 nm
[29] Stirring and dispersing in orifice (leak in pressurized vessel) TiO2, CeO2, SrCO3, TiZrAlO SMPS PSD (14 nm - 736 nm), fractions, relative values Increase of the fraction of ENPs by increase of the overpressure (up to 12%)
Suspensions      
[38] Weighing/transferring of powders and sonication of suspensions fullerenes, MWCNT, CB HHCPC, HHPC, TEM-EDX (filtration) PSD (0,3 μm - 10 μm), NC (10 nm - 1 μm) Suspension sonication leads to droplets with embedded ENM
[77] Spraying suspensions with and without Ag SMPS, TEM(ESP) PSD (10 nm - 500 nm), NC (< 100 nm), NC(< 500 nm) High fraction of particles < 100 nm
Coatings      
[63] Weak abrasion process (Taber Abraser) PVC layer with/without ENPs (nanoclay) SMPS, CPC PSD (5 nm-1 μm)  
[64] Weak abrasion process (Taber Abraser) coatings with/without ENPs (ZnO) SMPS, CPC; SEM/TEM-EDX (ESP) PSD (16 nm - 626 nm), NC (> 6 nm), wear mass Very low concentrations, ENPs still embedded
[81] UV light, wind erosion, scrabing coatings with TiO2 SMPS PSD (15 nm - 661 nm), NC (15 nm - 661 nm) Comparison with non-doped samples is missing
[54] Shaving (razor blade) CNT FMPS, HHCPC, SEM & TEM - EDX (TP) NC (10 nm -1 μm), PSD (5.6 nm-560 nm) No significant change in concentration; no free CNTs were observed
[7, 8] Sanding process (orbital sander) coatings with/without ENPs (TiO2, CB, SiO2, CaCO3) FMPS, APS(ESP) PSD (5.6 nm-20 μm) General release of NP, spark particles contamination
[67] Sanding process (Dremel) coatings with/without ENPs (ZnO, Fe2O3) FMPS, CPC, OPCSEM/TEM-EDX (ESP) PSD (5.6 nm-20 μm), NC (< 100 nm), NRP (< 100 nm), NRP (< 10 μm), swarf mass; material, morphology General release of NP but ENPs still embedded in the matrix
Composites      
[82] UV-light; weak abrasion process (Taber Abraser); customized sanding POM with/without CNT, PA with/without SiO2, cement with/without CNT, cement with/without CSH SMPS, UNPA, SEM, AUC, XPS, SIMS PSD (14 nm-820 nm), Morphologie, material No free SiO2-particles or CNTs detected
[42] Dry and wet cutting (band-saw; rotatory cutting wheel) composites with and without CNT FMPS, APS, HHCPC, DT, SEM/TEM-EDX (ESP, TP) PSD (5.6 nm-20 μm), NC (5.6 nm - 560 nm),
NC (0.5 μm - 20 μm) MC, material, morphology
No free CNTs observed
[69] Dry and wet solid core drilling Composites with and without CNT FMPS, APS, HHCPC, DT, DC, SEM/TEM-EDX (ESP, TP) WRASS+ICP-MS PSD (5.6 nm-20 μm), NC, MC (< 35 μm), SA; material; morphology Smoke generation, free CNT clusters observed