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Table 3 Association of PM mass and metal components with methylation of four tumor suppressor genes measured in post-exposure samples (N = 63)

From: Ambient PM exposure and DNA methylation in tumor suppressor genes: a cross-sectional study

Exposures APC p16 p53 RASSF1A
  β std 95% CI β std 95% CI β std 95% CI β std 95% CI
Unadjusted regression         
   PM10 0.27a 0.14 to 0.40 0.02 -0.17 to 0.20 0.00 -0.12 to 0.11 0.01 -0.16 to 0.18
   PM1 0.23b 0.10 to 0.37 0.02 -0.16 to 0.20 -0.06 -0.17 to 0.04 -0.01 -0.18 to 0.16
   Aluminium 0.15c 0.00 to 0.29 0.00 -0.18 to 0.18 0.04 -0.07 to 0.15 0.01 -0.15 to 0.18
   Manganese 0.11 -0.03 to 0.26 -0.03 -0.22 to 0.15 -0.02 -0.15 to 0.11 0.11 -0.05 to 0.28
   Nickel 0.08 -0.07 to 0.23 0.00 -0.18 to 0.18 0.04 -0.06 to 0.14 -0.02 -0.19 to 0.15
   Zinc 0.06 -0.08 to 0.21 0.18c 0.00 to 0.35 -0.06 -0.15 to 0.03 -0.18c -0.35 to -0.01
   Arsenic 0.01 -0.15 to 0.17 -0.02 -0.20 to 0.16 0.05 -0.05 to 0.15 0.01 -0.17 to 0.18
   Lead 0.12 -0.03 to 0.26 -0.01 -0.19 to 0.17 -0.04 -0.17 to 0.09 0.08 -0.09 to 0.25
   Iron 0.05 -0.10 to 0.20 -0.02 -0.20 to 0.16 -0.03 -0.12 to 0.07 -0.06 -0.24 to 0.12
Multivariable regression*         
   PM10 0.27a 0.13 to 0.40 0.01 -0.17 to 0.20 0.00 -0.12 to 0.12 0.03 -0.13 to 0.19
   PM1 0.23b 0.09 to 0.38 0.02 -0.17 to 0.21 -0.06 -0.16 to 0.05 0.04 -0.14 to 0.21
   Aluminium 0.14 0.00 to 0.29 0.00 -0.19 to 0.18 0.05 -0.06 to 0.17 0.05 -0.11 to 0.21
   Manganese 0.12 -0.03 to 0.26 -0.03 -0.22 to 0.15 -0.02 -0.15 to 0.12 0.12 -0.04 to 0.28
   Nickel 0.08 -0.08 to 0.23 0.00 -0.18 to 0.19 0.04 -0.06 to 0.13 -0.03 -0.19 to 0.13
   Zinc 0.08 -0.07 to 0.23 0.19c 0.02 to 0.37 -0.07 -0.16 to 0.03 -0.21c -0.37 to -0.05
   Arsenic 0.02 -0.14 to 0.18 -0.01 -0.20 to 0.18 0.04 -0.07 to 0.14 -0.04 -0.21 to 0.13
   Lead 0.12 -0.02 to 0.27 -0.01 -0.19 to 0.18 -0.05 -0.18 to 0.09 0.08 -0.08 to 0.24
   Iron 0.05 -0.10 to 0.21 -0.01 -0.20 to 0.17 -0.04 -0.13 to 0.06 -0.08 -0.25 to 0.09
  1. * multivariable mixed effects models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, % of granulocytes
  2. a p ≤ 0.0001; b p ≤ 0.001; c p ≤ 0.05