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Table 3 Chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM) collected at the selected sampling days

From: In vitro toxicity of particulate matter (PM) collected at different sites in the Netherlands is associated with PM composition, size fraction and oxidative potential - the RAPTES project

Fine PM   Trace metals Soluble inorganic compounds Organic compounds
(< 2.5 μm)   (ng/μg PM) (μg/μg PM) (μg/μg PM) (pg/μg PM)
Site Sampling day Al Cu Fe Ni V Zn NH 4 + Cl - NO 3 - SO 4 2- EC OC PAH
Steelworks 16-Jul-2007 2.0 - 15 0.39 1.3 7.3 0.17 0.01 0.13 0.32 0.12 0.15 133
Harbor 13-Dec-2007 0.56 0.13 4.1 0.22 0.58 2.2 0.17 0.01 0.37 0.17 0.09 0.06 93.7
Continuous traffic 12-Jul-2007 2.0 1.7 40 0.21 0.45 5.3 0.14 0.02 0.18 0.22 0.96 0.57 125
Truck traffic 26-Jul-2007 2.0 1.7 35 0.04 0.15 4.5 0.12 0.00 0.09 0.18 1.02 0.42 251
Stop & Go traffic 24-Jan-2008 21 0.15 19 0.33 0.59 2.3 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.12 0.19 0.07 231
Underground 26-Sep-2007 5.4 41 464 0.34 0.14 23 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.26 0.12 2.98
  1. Data of the urban background and farm site was not available due to equipment failure on the sampling days chosen for the in vitro toxicity testing. Values of trace metals represent the total of the soluble and insoluble metal fraction. PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, represents the total of 18 PAHs: naphthalene, acenaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenz(a, h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and coronene. EC, elemental carbon; OC, organic carbon. - below detection limit