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Table 1 Characterization of nanoparticles.

From: Progressive severe lung injury by zinc oxide nanoparticles; the role of Zn2+ dissolution inside lysosomes

Designated name ZnONP ZnONPalt NiONP TiO2NP
Supplier NanoScale Corp. Nanostructure and Amorphous Materials Inc. Nanostructure and Amorphous Materials Inc. Nanostructure and Amorphous Materials Inc.
Diameter (nm) examined by TEM 10.7 ± 0.7 137 ± 9.2 5.3 ± 0.4 30.5 ± 1.8
Surface area (m2/g)a 48.2 50 91.8 27.5
Mass (μg) per 150 cm2 (high dose- rat) 310 - 163.5 545
Mass (μg) per 50 cm2 (low dose- rat) 103 - 54.5 182
Mass (μg) per 15 cm2 (high dose- mouse) 31 - 9.18 -
Zn2+ (μg) equivalent to 50 cm2 (rat study) 82.8 - - -
Endotoxin (EU/ml)b ND ND ND ND
Hydrodynamic size (nm) in DW 2855 ± 773 4833 ± 625 1210 ± 471 787 ± 324
  PBS 3925 ± 715 5683 ± 510 2236 ± 407 1166 ± 344
  PBS (5% rat serum) 423 ± 24 282 ± 124 93 ± 4 119.1 ± 39.6
  PBS (5% mouse serum) 229 ± 187 - 83 ± 44 -
Zeta potential (mV) in PBS (5% rat serum) -27.1 ± 1.4 -25.9 ± 0.6 -26.0 ± 5.0 -28.5 ± 5.2
  PBS (5% mouse serum) -18.9 ± 1.5 - -21.4 ± 0.8 -
  1. Values are mean ± S.D. from four independent experiments.
  2. ND = not detectable.
  3. aDetermined by Escubed Ltd. (Leeds, UK).
  4. bLower detection limit 0.1 EU/ml.
  5. DW, distilled water.
  6. PBS, phosphate buffered saline.