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Table 1 Summary of physicochemical characterization data of Cu NPs [9] and experimental design of inhalation and instillation studies of pulmonary bacterial clearance

From: Effects of copper nanoparticle exposure on host defense in a murine pulmonary infection model

Physicochemical property Value
   Primary particle size (TEM) 12 ± 1 nm
   Crystalline phases (XRD) Cu, Cu2O, CuO*
   Surface functionality (XPS) O, O-H and H2O
   Surface area (BET) 12 ± 0.2 m2/g
Pulmonary bacterial clearance study  
   Sub-acute inhalation (NP aerosol concentration) 3.5 ± 0.4 mg/m3;
4 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 2 wk
Aerosol size distribution** 200 nm (1.4)
   Acute instillation (NP exposure concentration) 3, 35 and 100 μg/mouse;
24 hr post-exposure
   Bacterial infection concentration 1.4 ± 0.1 × 105 CFUs/mouse
   Necropsy post-infection of bacteria 24 hr
  1. *Cu NPs show a core/shell type morphology with a metallic Cu core and an oxidized shell consisting of a Cu2O inner shell and a CuO outer surface. See Ref [27] for further details. The oxidized shell increases in thickness relative to the core upon aging of the NPs in the ambient environment, i.e. upon long term exposure to water vapor and molecular oxygen.
  2. **Geometric mean, nm, (geometric standard deviation) in whole-body exposure chamber