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Table 2 Total number of cells, total protein and activity of LDH in BAL fluid after sub-acute inhalation (4 hr/d, 10 d; 3.5 mg/m3) and intratracheal instillation (24 hr post-exposure; 3, 35, 100 μg) to Cu NPs

From: Effects of copper nanoparticle exposure on host defense in a murine pulmonary infection model

Animal Group Total number of cells/mouse (× 10 3 ± SE) Total protein (μg/mL ± SE) LDH Activity (U/L ± SE)
Inhalation study
Sham exposure 105 ± 14 127 ± 4 100 ± 6
Cu NP 1,210 ± 106*** 544 ± 38*** 336 ± 29***
Instillation study
Sham exposure 149 ± 32 107 ± 7 163 ± 17
Cu NP
Low, 3 μg/mouse
186 ± 70 122 ± 17 193 ± 21
Cu NP
Medium, 35 μg/mouse
977 ± 156** 160 ± 13* 236 ± 21*
Cu NP
High, 100 μg/mouse
882 ± 121** 219 ± 37* 341 ± 39**
p by one-way ANOVA p < 0.001 p < 0.01 p < 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SE; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 significantly different from sham-exposed mice.
  2. p- value from one-way ANOVA test of a trend for comparison between NP exposure groups and controls.