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Table 2 Endothelium dependent (acetylcholine: ACh, and calcitonin-gene related peptide: CGRP) and independent (nitroglycerin: NTG, and felodipine: FD) vasodilatory function in ApoE-/- mice after intratracheal instillation of TiO2 particles or control solution (90% saline and 10% BAL fluid).

From: Modest effect on plaque progression and vasodilatory function in atherosclerosis-prone mice exposed to nanosized TiO2

Exposure i.t. instillation Drug - tempol + tempol
   EC 50 (nM) E max (%) EC 50 (nM) E max (%)
Control ACh 160.4 ± 65.0 56.7 ± 3.59 105.9 ± 35.6 31.2 ± 5.39*
fTiO2   207.7 ± 75.9 51.8 ± 4.98 107.5 ± 48.9 39.9 ± 6.23
pTiO2   222.3 ± 67.6 46.1 ± 3.92 49.3 ± 7.73 53.5 ± 7.31#
nTiO2   101.7 ± 32.1 54.7 ± 4.99 64.2 ± 11.0 42.1 ± 7.43
Control CGRP 8.7 ± 2.1 87.9 ± 2.69 13.3 ± 2.73 72.4 ± 5.82*
fTiO2   11.6 ± 2.1 82.7 ± 3.23 15.2 ± 2.28 73.6 ± 3.23
pTiO2   9.4 ± 0.90 90.0 ± 1.57 11.1 ± 0.53 78.2 ± 3.34
nTiO2   14.8 ± 2.1 80.4 ± 6.20 14.5 ± 2.42 70.9 ± 6.96
Control NTG 23.8 ± 3.96 69.8 ± 3.41 68.7 ± 12.4* 60.3 ± 2.36*
fTiO2   25.8 ± 4.63 66.5 ± 2.87 64.1 ± 16.9 60.3 ± 3.37
pTiO2   25.30 ± 8.26 69.8 ± 2.97 41.7 ± 5.3 65.6 ± 4.30
nTiO2   21.3 ± 4.43 67.3 ± 3.03 55.1 ± 20.9 64.4 ± 2.09
Control FD 10.4 ± 2.70 84.7 ± 3.74 7.57 ± 1.58 85.9 ± 2.69
fTiO2   6.67 ± 1.05 84.6 ± 4.62 5.96 ± 0.94 89.7 ± 2.36
pTiO2   6.55 ± 0.90 84.8 ± 1.87 5.26 ± 1.04 86.1 ± 1.81
nTiO2   7.82 ± 1.79 90.6 ± 2.70 8.58 ± 2.95 83.5 ± 2.83
  1. All measurements were done in both absence and ex vivo presence of the SOD mimic, tempol. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 10-11).
  2. # Interaction between the treatment with particles and tempol (P < 0.05, ANOVA). The post-hoc analysis showed lower Emax values in animals intratracheally instilled with control solution, whereas there are higher Emax values in ex vivo tempol treated vessels of the animals exposed to pTiO2 particles. *P < 0.05 (ANOVA) compared to Emax values in segments that were not treated with tempol.