Signature patterns of macrophage QCM responses to SWCNT exposures. Time dependent QCM measured responses of live macrophages to vehicle alone (1% BSA)(A), low dose (B), cytostress-doses (C) and high (D) doses of SWCNTs. By 6-16 hrs, a signature pattern of four types of outcomes can be recognized that predicts observations in 24 hr and 48 hr simulations: no response, a normal phagocytic response, a cytostress response with cell recovery and a response followed by a toxic outcome, respectively. In panel E, washed live macrophages are shown 48 hrs after addition and uptake of SWCNTs (100 μg/ml). At 24 and 48 hrs, DNA staining confirms evidence of apoptosis in these treated cells (G) compared to untreated cells (F).