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Figure 4 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Figure 4

From: Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects

Figure 4

Solvent immunotoxicity. Four different particle solvents were tested for their immunomodulation on IL-6 promoter transfected A549 cells, either unstimulated or stimulated with TNF-α (20 ng/ml), after 48 h. For IL-6 promoter induction, the luminescence value of untreated cells was 220 ± 23 RLU (relative light units), while TNF-α-stimulated cells had a value of 1,485 ± 211 RLU. Data were normalised to allow a direct comparison between stimulated and unstimulated cells and to enable combining data from multiple experiments. * p < 0.05 vs. untreated control.

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