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Figure 7 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Figure 7

From: Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects

Figure 7

NP-induced IL-8 promoter activation in A549 cells. Four different NP powders were used to test their immunomodulatory effect on A549 cells, measured by the induction of the IL-8 promoter in transfected cells. Unstimulated cells (diamond shaped symbols) or 20 ng/ml TNF-α stimulated cells (square symbols) were exposed to increasing concentrations of NPs for 48 h. Mean values ± SD (n = 3) are shown. The dotted lines represent the values in control cells treated with PBS (100%). The shaded areas represent the SD above and below the control values. Untreated cells gave a luminescence value of 2,799 ± 367 RLU, while TNF-α-stimulated cells had a value of 100,366 ± 3,697 RLU. Data were normalised to the PBS control (9.1% v/v PBS; taken as 100% value) to allow a direct comparison between stimulated and unstimulated cells and to enable combining data from multiple experiments. * p < 0.05 vs. control

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