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Table 2 Synergy between NPs and endotoxin in causing biological effects in human primary monocytes

From: Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects

   Gene expression (AU) b
Treatment a IL-18 IL-18Rα
   no NPs AgO NPs no NPs AgO NPs
4 h medium 0.77 ± 0.40 0.98 ± 0.20 n.s. 0.49 ± 0.04 0.47 ± 0.13 n.s.
  endotoxin 3.57 ± 0.80 3.04 ± 0.03 n.s. 0.65 ± 0.16 1.78 ± 0.37*
24 h medium 0.92 ± 0.11 0.92 ± 0.25 n.s. 0.27 ± 0.12 0.82 ± 0.56 n.s.
  endotoxin 0.31 ± 0.05 0.17 ± 0.05 n.s. 18.56 ± 1.86 10.17 ± 2.01*
  1. a Human monocytes were exposed for 4 and 24 h to culture medium alone or to medium containing 50 EU/ml endotoxin. At the beginning of the incubation, cells were exposed to endotoxin-free AgO NPs (4.9 μg/ml, corresponding to a dilution at 4.55% v/v). Controls were cells exposed to culture medium alone or to a 4.55% dilution of the solvent (no detectable difference).
  2. b Gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR, using β-actin as housekeeping gene. Data are mean ± SD of replicate experiments.
  3. * p < 0.05 vs. corresponding treatment in the absence of NPs; n.s. not significant vs. corresponding treatment in the absence of NPs