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Table 1 Physical and chemical characteristics of the NMs used in the present study

From: Cytotoxicity screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials using a test matrix of ten cell lines and three different assays

Material Primary
particle size
distribution
[nm]
BET
[m2 g -1 ]
Crystallinity Particle morphology Purity [%] Surface
modification
Surface
chemistry
[%]
ζ -
potential
H 2 O (pH 7)
[mV]
pH in H 2 0
(pH 7)
ζ-potential
DMEM/10%
FBS [mV]
pH
DMEM/
10% FBS
Solubility
DMEM/10%
FBS
[mg kg -1 ]
TiO 2 1 d90 17
d50 11
55 anatase (95%)/rutile (5%) irregular spherical >99.0 polyoxa acid O 53.0
Ti 21.0
C 25.0
17.5 4.04 -6.7 ± 0.7 7.8 Ti: 0.063 ± 0.042
TiO 2 2 d90 17
d50 11
55 anatase (95%)/rutile (5%) irregular spherical >99.0 polyoxa acid O 56.4
Ti 20.1
C 22.8
17.5 4.04 -9.9 ± 0.6 7.8 Ti: 0.073 ± 0.024
TiO 2 3 d90 28
d50 21
25*
51 anatase (80%)/rutile (20%) crystalline, irregular globular 99.5 - 0 58.0
Ti 26.0
C 14.0
N 0.5
Cl 1.0
-26.3 3.62 -9.1 ± 0.3 7.8 Ti: 0.015 ± 0.004
Carbon Black d90 23
d50 17
14*
339 amorphous agglomerated (d90 37 μm; d50 127 μm) > 99.9 - nd -14 nd -7.6 ± 0.9 7.8 nd
CeO 2 -A d90 10
d50 7
63 100% face centered cubic crystalline > 99.97 HNO3 O 56.8
Ce 25.0
C 18.2
45.8 6.2 -9.9 ± 0.5 7.8 Ce: 0.415 ± 0.005
CeO 2 -B d90 15
d50 7
44 100% face centered cubic crystalline > 99.97 HNO3 O 56.1
Ce 21.8
C 22.1
35 5.4 -9.2 ± 0.2 7.8 Ce: 0.57 ± 0.08
CeO 2 -C d90 16
d50 7
38 100% face centered cubic crystalline > 99.97 HNO3 O 56.5
Ce 22.1
C 21.5
30 3.4 -10.1 ± 0.2 7.8 Ce: 0.255 ± 0.040
CeO 2 -D d90 10
d50 7
63 100% face centered cubic crystalline > 99.97 HNO3 O 56.0
Ce 22.3
C 21.7
30 3.4 -9.6 ± 0.1 7.8 Ce: 0.28 ± 0.06
CeO 2 d90 70
d50 40
33 cerianite, cubic irregular spherical 97.7 - O 53.0
Ce 26.0
C 20.0
Cl 0.6
23.7 nd -7.3 ± 1.1 7.9 Ce: 0.018 ± 0.016
AlOOH I d50 40
d90 nd
47 orthorhombic, Böhmit-like irregular spherical, agglomerated (d50 41 μm; d90 83 μm) 82.7 - O 61.6
Al 31.7
C 6.7
34.0 (1 mmol KCl) 3.5-5 -7.6 ± 0.8 7.8 Al: 0.185 ± 0.012
AlOOH II d50 70
d90 nd
159 orthorhombic, Böhmit-like irregular spherical, agglomerated (d50 12 μm; d90 43 μm) 92.5 - O 65.0
Al 32.1
C 2.0
Cl 0.9
26.4 (1 mmol KCl) 7.5 -10.7 ± 0.2 7.8 Al: 0.265 ± 0.167
Ti-Zr 1* d90 31
d50 23
44 ZrO2 tetragonal/baddeleyite ZrO2 crystalline >99 TiO2:ZrO2 = 10:90 - C 16.9
O 55.5
Cl 0.7
Ti 6.3
Zr 20.6
-30 4.0 -8.7 ± 0.7 7.8 Ti: - Zr: 0.012 ± 0.001
Ti-Zr 2* d90 34
d50 17
54 ZrO2 srilankite orthorhombic, TiO2 possibly rutile crystalline >99 TiO2:ZrO2 = 50:50 - C 20.5
O 55.3
Cl 0.4
Ti 15.6
Zr 10.2
-34 4.1 -9.7 ± 0.4 7.8 Ti: 0.011 ± 0.007 Zr: 0.018 ± 0.006
Ti-Zr 3* d90 34
d50 18
51 TiO2 tetragonal anatase and rutile crystalline >99 TiO2:ZrO2 = 90:10 - C 22.6
O 53.7
Ti 22.4
Zr 1.2
-20 4.4 -8.9 ± 0.3 7.8 Ti: 0.028 ± 0.002 Zr: 0.004 ± 0.002
Al-Ti-Zr 1* d90 30
d50 23
43 ZrO2 tetragonal 31% ellipsoid 36% linear 31% branched 2% circular >99 Al2O3:ZrO2 = 15:75 TiO2 10 - C 13.5
O 56
Al 14.2
Cl 0.9
Ti 5.8
Zr 9.6
0 4.61 -9.5 ± 0.7 7.8 Al: 0.085 ± 0.046 Ti: 0.011 ± 0.007 Zr: 0.030 ± 0.005
Al-Ti-Zr 2* d90 36
d50 25
45 AlO0,18ZrO0,82O1,91tetragonal ZrO2 orthorhombic possibly TiO2 cubic 36% ellipsoid 37% linear 24% branched 3% circular >99 Al2O3:ZrO2 = 45:45 TiO2 10 - C 12.1
O 57
Al 20.9
Cl 0.7
Ti 3.2
Zr 6.1
18 4.93 -7.4 ± 0.7 7.8 Al: 0.045 ± 0.012 Ti: 0.008 ± 0.004 Zr: 0.029 ± 0.018
Al-Ti-Zr 3* d90 41
d50 29
48 AlO0,18ZrO0,82O1,91tetragonal Al2O3 cubic 36% ellipsoid 33% linear 27% branched 3% circular >99 Al2O3:ZrO2 = 75:15 TiO2 10 - C 13.5
O 54.4
Al 23.9
Cl 0.4
Ti 4.6
Zr 3.3
19 4.57 -7.0 ± 0.5 7.8 Al: 0.01 ± 0.018 Ti: 0.003 ± 0.004 Zr: 0.008 ± 0.001
ZrO 2 1 d90 40
d50 17
122 ZrO2 monocline (60%)/Baddeleyite tetragonal (40%) irregular spherical 94.6 polyoxa acid, 12,5% w/w O 55
Zr 21
C 24
Cl 0.6
59.3 4.06 -8.7 ± 0.8 7.8 Zr: 0.037 ± 0.032
ZrO 2 2 d90 40
d50 17
122 ZrO2 monocline (60%)/Baddeleyite tetragonal (40%) irregular spherical 94.6 acetic acid, 8,5% w/w O 55
Zr 21
C 24
Cl 0.6
17 3.68 -7.7 ± 0.5 7.8 Zr: 0.062 ± 0.023
ZrO 2 3 d90 250
d50 90
96 ZrO2 monocline (60%)/Baddeleyite tetragonal (40%) irregular spherical 94.6 Ammoniumpolyacrylate, 13,6% w/w O 48
Zr 21
C 18
N 12
Cl 0.6
-44 9.45 -11.5 ± 0.7 7.8 Zr: 0.214 ± 0.086
BaSO 4 d50 37.5
d90 nd
41.4 crystalline, orthorhombic, baryte-like spherical. agglomerated (d90 35 μm; d50 17 μm) 93.8 organic Ba 12.7
S 10.8
O 51.7
C 17.2
-33 9.7 -10.7 ± 0.8 7.8 Ba: 0.675 ± 0.075
SrCO 3 1 d90 19
d50 13
33 crystalline, orthorhombic, strontianite-like rod shaped. agglomerated (d90 23.7 μm; d50 5.9 μm) 96.4 organic, hydrophilic Sr 21.1
C 27.1
O 51.3
-10 7.8 -9.2 ± 0.6 7.8 Sr: 0.545 ± 0.092
SrCO 3 2 d90 17
d50 13
8.9 crystalline, orthorhombic, strontianite-like rod shaped. agglomerated (d90 18.6 μm; d50 5.9 μm) 85 organic, hydrophobic Sr 11.7
C 50.6
O 37.0
P 0.7
-66 7.6 -10.8 ± 0.6 7.8 Sr: 0.680 ± 0.005
  1. • supplier data, mixed oxide, 1 ζ-potential DMEM/10% FBS:-7.6 ± 0.9 mV,