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Table 1 A summary of nanomaterial–induced lysosomal perturbation

From: Autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction as emerging mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity

Nanomaterial Size and charge of the nanomaterial Models Experimental technique used to evaluate lysosomal perturbation,
e.g. lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)
Reference
Multi-wall carbon nanotube <8 nm, 20–30 nm, >50 nm* 3 T3 fibroblast; hT bronchial epithelial cells; RAW macrophages Acridine orange staining (change from lysosomal red to cytosolic green fluorescence) [35]
mercaptopropanoic acid-coated gold nanoparticles 5 nm; negative charge# Mytilus edulis (blue mussel) Neutral red retention assay in the haemolymph (loss of dye from the lysosomes to cytosol) [36]
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles <100 nm# Rainbow trout gonadal tissue (RTG-2 cells) Neutral red retention assay (loss of dye from the lysosomes to cytosol) [37]
G5-PAMAM dendrimer 5 nm; positive charge# KB cells, a sub-line of the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line Measurement of lysosomal pH using dextran-fluorescein conjugate [38]
Glass wool 3-7 μm* Mytilus edulis (blue mussel) Neutral red retention assay (loss of dye from the lysosomes to cytosol) [39]
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles 5 nm; neutral# L929 mouse fibroblast Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [40]
Silver nanoparticles 25 nm; negative charge# Crassostrea virginica (Oyster) Neutral red retention assay (loss of dye from the lysosomes to cytosol) [41]
Fullerene (C60) nanoparticles ~150 nm# Crassostrea virginica (Oyster) Neutral red retention assay (loss of dye from the lysosomes to cytosol) [42]
Silica particles Micron scale* Mouse peritoneal macrophages Acridine orange staining (change from lysosomal red to cytosolic green fluorescence) and release of lysosomal enzymes (Acid phosphatase and β-glucuronidase activity) [43]
TNF-bp20-K PEG monomer (38 kDa) nanoscale* Sprague–Dawley rats (Renal cortical tubular epithelium) Histopathology evaluation (vacuolization) [44]
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles 15 nm*, 461 nm (PBS); negative charge# 16HBE14o-cells, human bronchial epithelial cells Acridine orange staining (change from lysosomal red to cytosolic green fluorescence), Immunostaining for cytosolic cathepsin B [45]
Polyalkyl-sulfonated C60 nanoscale* Sprague–Dawley rats (liver and kidney) Histopathology, TEM [46]
Zinc oxide nanoparticles 10 nm*, 229 nm in PBS + 5 % mouse serum#; negative charge (in PBS + 5 % mouse serum)# THP-1 cells, human monocytic cell line Acridine orange staining (change from lysosomal red to cytosolic green fluorescence) [47]
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles Nanospheres 60–200 nm, Long nanobelts 15–30 μm, Short nanobelts 0.8-4 μm; slightly negative# C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages TEM, cytosolic cathepsin B, Acridine orange staining (change from lysosomal red to cytosolic green fluorescence) [48]
Polystyrene nanoparticles 110 nm; positive charge# Human macrophages Cytosolic cathepsin B, Acridine orange staining (change from lysosomal red to cytosolic green fluorescence) [49]
  1. *characterized by manufacturer; #characterized by author.