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Table 4 Post hoc sequence analysis of mediators (cytokines and chemokines) in BAL fluid

From: Effects of ultrafine particles on the allergic inflammation in the lung of asthmatics: results of a double-blinded randomized cross-over clinical pilot study

Sequence(A): 1.Period: UPF – 2.Period: Filtered air
Mediators BAL [pg/ml] UFP mean (allergen-saline) Filtered air (FA) mean (allergen-saline) Treatment effect (UFP-FA) 95%-confidence interval p-value
IL-6 −3.0 55.0 −58.0 −102.8; −13.1 0.019
MCP-1 38.0 210.0 −171.9 −303.3; −40.6 0.019
TNF-α 0.2 2.1 −1.9 −2.8; −1.0 0.002
Eotaxin 2.3 10.7 −8.4 −18.9; 2.1 0.097
IL10 0.9 7.2 −6.4 −14.3; 1.6 0.099
CD40L 2.4 2.3 0.2 −5.8; 6.1 0.948
GM-CSF 5.5 6.1 −0.6 −5.5; 4.3 0.779
IFN-γ −0.5 0.1 −0.6 −2.5; 1.4 0.527
IL-13 8.8 67.1 −58.3 −137.5; 20.9 0.122
IL-17 0.1 0.3 −0.2 −0.8; 0.4 0.477
IL-2 1.1 1.00 0.1 −3.0; 3.2 0.928
IL-4 1.3 13.0 −11.8 −30.9; 7.4 0.184
IL-5 128.6 73.3 55.4 −313.1; 423.8 0.726
IL-7 −2.0 −0.4 −1.6 −19.0; 15.7 0.827
IL-8 20.9 48.0 −27.1 −96.1; 42.0 0.375
IL-1β −0.1 1.0 −1.1 −2.9; 0.7 0.174
IL12p70 −0.3 0.01 −0.3 −1.0; 0.4 0.356
Sequence(B): 1.Period: Filtered air – 2.Period: UFP
Mediators BAL [pg/ml] Filtered air (FA) mean (allergen-saline) UFP mean (allergen-saline) Treatment effect (UFP-FA) 95%-confidence interval p-value
IL-6 12.3 30.5 18.2 −19.4; 55.9 0.250
MCP-1 27.4 113.5 86.1 −98.7; 270.9 0.265
TNF-α 0.2 1.3 1.1 −1.4; 3.5 0.289
Eotaxin 0.6 5.7 5. 2 −4.6; 14.9 0.216
IL10 0.9 8.5 7.7 −5.4; 20.8 0.179
CD40L 0.0 0.1 0.1 −0.2; 0.5 0.374
GM-CSF 2.4 2.5 0.1 −1.7; 1.9 0.910
IFN-γ −0.3 0.4 0.6 −0.5; 1.7 0.181
IL-13 3.0 63.5 60.4 −46.7; 167.6 0.192
IL-17 0.0 1.2 1.2 −1.1; 3.4 0.237
IL-2 1.1 4.3 3.1 −9.9; 16.2 0.540
IL-4 0.0 7.8 7.8 −5.5; 21.0 0.178
IL-5 29.0 75.2 46.2 −39.1; 131.4 0.208
IL-7 −1.0 −0.8 0.3 −7.2; 7.8 0.928
IL-8 13.1 21.5 8.4 −28.9; 45.8 0.565
IL-1β −0.1 0.1 0.1 −0.2; 0.5 0.374
IL12p70 −0.5 −0.6 −0.1 −1.1; 0.9 0.803
  1. Sequence analysis using t-test for two paired samples of the exposure sequence. (A) 1st Period: UFP – 2nd Period: Filtered air and (B) 1st Period: Filtered air – 2nd Period: UFP. Treatment differences between UFP and filtered air.