Morphology and quantification of deposited CNC aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy images of 1 mL nebulised c-CNCs (a) and t-CNCs (both 0.5 mg/mL) (b) deposited on pre-coated, protein rich copper grids using the ALICE system resulting in a deposited dose of 0.81 ± 0.03 μg/cm2. Histograms show the size distribution as counts (y-axis) and length (nm) (x-axis) of c-CNCs (a`) and t-CNCs (b`). Dimensions are measured from pictures derived from nebulisations leading to mostly individually deposited fibers (c-CNCs 0.5 and 0.1 mg/mL; t-CNCs 0.1 mg/mL). Average dimensions were calculated from 100 individual measurements of 3 individual nebulisations (n = 3). Quantification of deposited c-CNCs and t-CNCs after nebulisation at 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL was performed using two independent methods (n = 3) (c). Dots (○) represent results for c-CNCs, triangles (Δ) t-CNCs; filled symbols = QCM data, empty symbols = Anthrone data. The dotted line (..…) displays the detection limit of the QCM (90 ng/cm2). Scale bars represent 1 μm.