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Table 1 Physico-chemical characteristics of CNCs derived from cotton (c-CNC) or tunicates (t-CNC)

From: An in vitro testing strategy towards mimicking the inhalation of high aspect ratio nanoparticles

  Dimensiona(nm) Aspect ratioa Chemical compositionb(%) Surface chargec Stiffness Stabilityd
(mmol SO4/kg) (GPa) DT×10−8(cm2/s)e DR(s−1)f
c-CNC 170 ± 72 (l) x 9.2 ± 3.7 (C)41.45 ± 3.02g 56 ± 4.9 ~105 [57] (0 h) 2.81 ± 0.32 (0 h) 64.5 ± 4.0
19 ± 7 (w) (H)6.03 ± 0.48h (24 h) 3.11 ± 0.14 (24 h) 67.5 ± 8.8
(S)0.18 ± 0.03
t-CNC 2300 ± 1400 (l) 80 ± 21 (C)39.88 ± 0.66g 133 ± 2.4 ~143 [58] (0 h) 2.24 ± 0.23 (0 h) 42.5 ± 13.0
x 31 ± 7 (w) (H)5.73 ± 0.06h (24 h) 2.36 ± 0.32 (24 h) 34.1 ± 8.8
(S)0.47 ± 0.05
  1. aTransmission electron microscopy, bElemental analysis, cTitration, dDepolarised dynamic light scattering, eTranslational diffusion coefficient, fRotational diffusion coefficient; theoretical values for pure cellulose g(C) 44.31% and h(H) 6.51%.
  2. Data is presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD), except for depolarised dynamic light scattering (DDLS), where standard error of the regression analysis is given (SE).