Viability and IL-1β release following 24-h exposure to TiO
nanobelts in C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages co-cultured with 20 ng/mL LPS. A) Mean ± SEM percent viable cells relative to no particle control. B) Mean ± SEM IL-1β release. Asterisks indicate significance at *** P < 0.001 or * P < 0.05 compared to baseline condition. Daggers indicate significance at †† P < 0.01 or † P < 0.05 compared to the two other nanobelt variants at the same concentration.