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Figure 2 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Figure 2

From: Inhalation of rod-like carbon nanotubes causes unconventional allergic airway inflammation

Figure 2

Inhalation to rCNT induces AHR, mucus secretion and induction of Th2 type cytokines in the lungs. a: BALB/c mice exposed to rCNT for 4 h/day on 4 consecutive days showed enhanced AHR to metacholine on day 5. b-h: using the same exposure schedule, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to tCNT or rCNT and sacrificed on the following day. b: PAS-stained lung sections were used to determine the numbers of mucin-producing goblet cells. c-e: representative images of PAS-stained lung tissue of an untreated mouse (c) and mice exposed to tCNT (d) and rCNT (e) that show markable activation of mucin-producing cells in lungs of rCNT-exposed but not in tCNT-exposed mice. f, g: the mRNA expression levels measured in lung tissue revealed an upregulation of Th2 type cytokines Il-13 and Il-5 (f) and downregulation of Th1 cytokine Ifn-γ (g) after exposure to rCNT. h: furthermore, mRNA expression of eosinophil-attracting chemokines Ccl11, Ccl24 and Ccl17 was triggered in lungs by rCNT. Results of AHR measurements (a) are expressed as mean enhanced pause values (Penh) ± SEM (n = 9-11). PAS + cell counts (b) represent the average of positive cells per 200 μm of bronchus surface counted from three bronchi per mouse in control group and six bronchi per mouse in CNT-exposed groups (n = 10-20). Images c-e are shown at x400 magnification with a 50 μm scale bar. mRNA expression levels measured by qRT-PCR are presented as fold changes compared to untreated control mice (n = 10-20). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. MCh, metacoline; C, control group.

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