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Table 3 Percent change a in lung function indicators associated with an interquartile-range increase in personal levels of PM 2.5 , elemental carbon (EC), or elemental components of PM 2.5 b

From: Air pollution exposure and lung function in highly exposed subjects in Beijing, China: a repeated-measure study

   FEV1 (observations = 237)c FVC (observations = 237)c FEV1/FVC ratio (observations = 237)c FEF 25%-75% (observations = 235)c PEF (observations = 237)c
  IQRd % change (95% CI) FDRe % change (95% CI) FDR % change (95% CI) FDR % change (95% CI) FDR % change (95% CI) FDR
PM2.5 83.87 1.11 (-1.31; 3.59) 0.466 0.12 (-2.79; 3.11) 0.938 1.27 (-0.91; 3.50) 0.952 8.18 (-3.01; 20.67) 0.490 3.09 (-0.47; 6.77) 0.574
EC 7.36 0.37 (-1.94; 2.74) 0.755 -1.39 (-4.14; 1.43) 0.415 0.69 (-1.47; 2.89) 0.952 7.72 (-3.09; 19.73) 0.490 0.66 (-2.65; 4.09) 0.700
K 0.91 0.51 (-1.75; 2.82) 0.734 0.72 (-2.01; 3.52) 0.680 0.51 (-1.58; 2.65) 0.952 7.07 (-3.39; 18.67) 0.490 0.66 (-2.6; 4.03) 0.700
S 6.67 1.94 (-1.07; 5.04) 0.301 1.93 (-1.82; 5.81) 0.415 0.71 (-2.23; 3.74) 0.952 9.71 (-4.89; 26.54) 0.490 1.67 (-2.68; 6.22) 0.574
Fe 0.55 -1.95 (-3.75; -0.11) 0.080 -1.76 (-3.96; 0.49) 0.252 -0.06 (-1.79; 1.70) 0.952 -2.79 (-10.77; 5.90) 0.576 -1.24 (-3.86; 1.46) 0.574
Si 1.54 -3.07 (-5.00; -1.11) 0.015 -3.23 (-5.61; -0.79) 0.043 -0.12 (-2.00; 1.79) 0.952 -3.24 (-11.96; 6.34) 0.576 -1.97 (-4.86; 1.00) 0.574
Al 0.86 -2.88 (-4.91; -0.81) 0.023 -3.26 (-5.73; -0.72) 0.043 0.30 (-1.67; 2.30) 0.952 -1.88 (-11.05; 8.25) 0.706 -1.87 (-4.86; 1.21) 0.574
Zn 0.24 1.55 (-0.44; 3.57) 0.217 1.72 (-0.75; 4.24) 0.293 0.30 (-1.71; 2.35) 0.952 5.86 (-3.78; 16.48) 0.490 1.28 (-1.58; 4.23) 0.574
Ca 1.33 -1.86 (-2.95; -0.76) 0.010 -1.86 (-3.23; -0.47) 0.043 -0.15 (-1.22; 0.94) 0.952 -2.42 (-7.50; 2.93) 0.576 -0.96 (-2.60; 0.71) 0.574
Ti 0.03 -2.58 (-4.44; -0.68) 0.023 -2.69 (-4.99; -0.34) 0.068 0.06 (-1.77; 1.91) 0.952 -3.32 (-11.68; 5.84) 0.576 -1.08 (-3.86; 1.77) 0.574
  1. aAdjusted for group, age, sex, BMI, number of cigarettes smoked during examination time, day of the week, time used for commuting to work, work hours per week, temperature, and dew point values. For exposures other than PM2.5, PM2.5 was also included in the model as an independent variable.
  2. bMeasured during work hours of the examination days using light-weight personal monitors.
  3. cObservations vary across different lung function indicators due to missing values.
  4. dPercent changes and 95% confidence intervals are scaled to the interquartile range (IQR) of the exposures.
  5. eFDR: Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate.