Effect of EPFR exposure on oxidative stress burden in neonates. A) Neonatal exposure and influenza infection model. Three day old mice were exposed to 200 μg/m3 of DCB230, DCB50, or air for seven consecutive days (0-7 dpe) for 30 min/day (black arrow head) and infected with influenza at 1.25 TCID50/neonate on the fourth dpe (red arrow head). Non-infected lungs were isolated at four dpe for analysis of oxidative stress and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Infected lungs were isolated for pulmonary viral load, flow cytometry, and pulmonary viral clearance on four, six, and eight days post-infection (dpi; asterisks). Pulmonary oxidative stress, determined by levels of (B) 8-isoprostance (IP) and (C) GSH/GSSG ratio in lungs of wild-type C57BL/6 after five days of exposure to air, DCB50 (D50), or DCB230 (D230) and in lungs of hSOD2 transgenic neonates exposed to DCB230 (D230(hSOD+)). Data plotted as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). *p <0.05 D230 vs Air, D50, and D230(hSOD+); # p <0.05 D230(hSOD+) vs Air, D50, and D230; Brackets indicate p <0.05 D230 vs Air and D230(hSOD+); one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. N =4-10/group.