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Figure 2 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Figure 2

From: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles promote arrhythmias via a direct interaction with rat cardiac tissue

Figure 2

Representative traces of sarcomere shortening recorded in CTRL (black) and NP C (red) cardiomyocytes field-stimulated at 0.5 (A), 1 (B) and 2 (C) Hz. Graphs of resting sarcomere length (D), sarcomere fractional shortening (FS) (E), maximal rate of shortening (−dl/dtmax) (F), and maximal rate of re-lengthening (+dl/dtmax) (G). H. Pie charts of the percentages of cardiomyocytes exhibiting spontaneous contractions (SCs, stippled areas) in CTRL (white) and NPC (red) cells after 60 s of conditional training at 0.5 Hz. I. Graph of number of SCs/cardiomyocyte in the 60 s measurement period. *, p <0.01 vs. CTRL.

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