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Table 1 Biophysical properties on TiO 2 NPs in different solutions

From: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles promote arrhythmias via a direct interaction with rat cardiac tissue

TiO2-NPs Water Saline Tyrode PBS-BSA
Z-Potential (mV) −31.74 ± 1.02 −18.36 ± 2.30 −24.60 ± 1.61 −13.05 ± 2.13
HydrodynamicDiameter (nm) 154 ± 3.00 498 ± 0.55 538 ± 0.37 449 ± 0.85