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Table 6 Cascade of cellular and molecular biological events following particle lung exposure

From: Translational toxicology in setting occupational exposure limits for dusts and hazard classification – a critical evaluation of a recent approach to translate dust overload findings from rats to humans

Phases Hallmark
Phase 1 Production of inflammation promoting mediators Stimulation of primary ROS from AM, RNS
Stimulation of secondary ROS, RNS from AM, PMN (epithelial cells)
TNF alpha, MIP2 from AM
PMN recruitement
Phase 2 Increased production of anti-inflammatory mediators GSH
SOD
Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10
Phase 3 Repair of injury Stimulation of DNA-repair mechanisms
Phase 4 Intermediate endpoints 8-oxoGua
Proliferation
  1. Abbr.: 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2´-deoxiguanosine: 8-oxoGua, alveolar macrophages: AM, reactive oxygen species: ROS, reactive nitrogen species: RNS, glutathione: GSH, macrophage inflammatory protein 2: MIP 2, polymorphonuclear neutrophils: PMN, superoxide dismutase: SOD, tumour necrosis factor alpha: TNF alpha.