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Table 1 Description of study participants and 5-minute ECG measures

From: Elevated particle number concentrations induce immediate changes in heart rate variability: a panel study in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes

  All (N = 64) Type 2 diabetes (N = 32) IGT (N = 32) p-value
  Mean (SD)   Mean (SD)   Mean (SD)  
Age (years) 66.0 (8.1)   66.8 (6.7)   65.3 (9.4) 0.47a
BMI (kg/m2) 30.0 (4.7)   30.8 (4.3)   29.3 (4.9) 0.18a
   N (%)   N (%)   N (%)  
BMI (kg/m2) ≤30 34 (53)   15 (47)   19 (59) 0.32b
  >30 30 (47)   17 (53)   13 (41)  
Smoking never smoker 26 (41)   10 (31)   16 (50) 0.20c
  ex smoker 37 (58)   21 (66)   16 (50)  
  occasional smoker 1 (2)   1 (3)   0 (0)  
Employed no 50 (78)   27 (84)   23 (72) 0.23b
  yes 14 (22)   5 (16)   9 (28)  
HbA1c <6.5% 49 (77)   18 (56)   31 (97) <0.0001c
  ≥6.5% 15 (23)   14 (44)   1 (3)  
History of Coronary heart disease 4 (6)   3 (9)   1 (3) 0.61c
  Angina pectoris 5 (8)   2 (6)   3 (9) 1.00c
  Myocardial infarction 6 (9)   5 (16)   1 (3) 0.20c
  Hypertension 41 (64)   21 (66)   20 (63) 0.79b
  None of these diseases 21 (33)   9 (28)   12 (38) 0.42b
Medication use Antidiabetics 18 (28)   17 (53)   1 (3) <0.0001c
  Beta blockers 19 (30)   12 (38)   7 (22) 0.17b
  Statins 13 (20)   10 (31)   3 (9) 0.06c
  None of the above 28 (44)   6 (19)   22 (69) <0.0001c
ECG   N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD)  
5 min-intervals HR 14,874 79.3 (15.6) 7,312 77.7 (15.6) 7,562 80.8 (15.4) <0.0001a
  RMSSD 14,874 30.8 (30.1) 7,312 28.0 (27.3) 7,562 33.5 (32.3) <0.0001a
  SDNN 14,874 47.1 (25.1) 7,312 45.9 (24.6) 7,562 48.2 (25.5) <0.0001a
1 h-intervals HR 1,203 79.1 (14.4) 597 77.3 (14.4) 606 80.8 (14.1) <0.0001a
  RMSSD 1,203 33.9 (31.7) 597 32.5 (32.2) 606 35.1 (31.2) 0.16a
  SDNN 1,203 76.7 (27.1) 597 77.5 (26.0) 606 76.0 (28.2) 0.32a
  1. IGT: impared glucose tolerance, SD: standard deviation, BMI: body mass index, HR: heart rate, RMSSD: root mean square of successive differences, SDNN: standard deviation of NN-intervals, at-test, bChi-square test, cFisher’s exact test.
  2. Antidiabetic medications include: insulins and analogues for injection and inhalation.