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Table 4 Associations between ambient 1-hour average air pollution concentrations at the central monitoring site and 1-hour average ECG-measures

From: Elevated particle number concentrations induce immediate changes in heart rate variability: a panel study in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes

  HR SDNN   RMSSD
  %-change 95% CI %-change 95% CI %-change 95% CI
Personal PNC 0.13 −0.19; 0.45 −0.93 −2.01; 0.16 0.53 −0.70;1.77
UFP 0.40 −0.16; 0.95 0.99 −0.66; 2.64 −0.12 −2.40; 2.21
ACP 0.35 −0.39; 1.09 −0.30 −2.23; 1.64 −1.58 −5.19; 2.18
PM10 0.67 −0.20; 1.54 −2.78* −4.98; −0.59 −5.00* −8.88; −0.95
PM2.5 0.63 −0.44; 1.71 −3.27* −5.84; −0.69 −6.86** −11.73; −1.72
  1. Analyses considered concurrent exposures and adjusted for trend, meteorology and time of day. Effect estimates are shown for an increase in interquartile range as given in Table 2.
  2. p-value <0.1, *p-value <0.05, **p-value <0.01, CI: confidence interval, HR: heart rate, RMSSD: root mean square of successive differences, SDNN: standard deviation of NN-intervals, PNC: Particle number concentrations, PM10: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10μm, PM2.5: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm, UFP: ultrafine particles (10-100μm); ACP: accumulation mode particles (100-800 nm).