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Table 2 Summary of inflammatory cell counts, LDH, total protein, and inflammatory mediators at 24 h after intratracheal instillation of NPs

From: Response-metrics for acute lung inflammation pattern by cobalt-based nanoparticles

BALF measure VEHPBS Co3O4 dose (μg/rat) CoO dose (μg/rat)
40 100 400 40 100 400
Total cells (× 105) 10.95 ± 1.42 23.60 ± 3.64 20.48 ± 5.59 45.60 ± 7.71*** 18.90 ± 2.40 30.53 ± 0.39 23.25 ± 4.10
Macrophages (× 105) 10.34 ± 1.19 23.21 ± 3.55 16.67 ± 4.63 19.82 ± 3.27 17.58 ± 1.81 24.46 ± 2.64* 11.83 ± 3.03
Neutrophils (× 105) 0.49 ± 0.39 0.38 ± 0.10 3.79 ± 3.13 25.65 ± 4.80*** 1.18 ± 1.06 4.91 ± 2.02 8.02 ± 1.85
Eosinophils (× 105) 0.07 ± 0.02 0.00 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.05 0.10 ± 0.10 1.16 ± 0.76 3.37 ± 1.23**
Lymphocytes (× 105) 0.05 ± 0.05 0.02 ± 0.02 0.00 ± 0.00 0.05 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.03 0.00 ± 0.00 0.04 ± 0.04
LDH (fold vs control) 1.00 ± 0.05 1.23 ± 0.10 1.62 ± 0.17 3.47 ± 0.15*** 2.35 ± 0.08*** 5.41 ± 0.22*** 9.21 ± 0.30***
Total protein (μg/mL) 301 ± 5 118 ± 14 335 ± 116 253 ± 18 99 ± 5 1104 ± 77* 3767 ± 667***
CINC-3 (pg/mL) 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 110.4 ± 39.4** 0.00 ± 0.00 27.3 ± 27.3 0.00 ± 0.00
IL-6 (pg/mL) 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 123.4 ± 43.6 982.0 ± 349.4***
Eotaxin (pg/mL) 5.7 ± 1.2 4.5 ± 1.5 67.4 ± 57.4 22.5 ± 10.6 4.5 ± 1.8 265.7 ± 68.9 2963.9 ± 870.7***
IL-13 (pg/mL) 17.7 ± 1.9 22.6 ± 4.2 28.9 ± 4.5 16.9 ± 6.0 35.8 ± 4.9 49.0 ± 9.7 108.5 ± 15.6***
  1. Data were presented as mean ± SEM. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001, statistically different from vehicle control (VEHPBS)
  2. VEHPBS, Ca2+-and Mg2+-free PBS was used as VEH for NPs; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; CINC-3, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-3