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Table 6 Cytokines parameters in the BALF of male and female rats 24 h and 90 days after a 90-day exposure to Graphistrength© C100

From: Lung inflammation and lack of genotoxicity in the comet and micronucleus assays of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes Graphistrength© C100 after a 90-day nose-only inhalation exposure of rats

Mean ± sd (pg/mL) # IL-1β IL-5 TNF-α IL-1 α
MALE
24 h post exposure
0 mg/m3 11.52 ± 6.43 0 ± 0.0 1.34 ± 0.60 3.38 ± 6.40
0.05 mg/m3 12.83 ± 9.11 0 ± 0.0 1.47 ± 0.84 11.31 ± 11.70
0.25 mg/m3 13.43 ± 5.96 0 ± 0.0 4.56 ± 1.55** 5.99 ± 6.82
5.0 mg/m3 10.60 ± 2.58 0 ± 0.0 8.17  ± 2.66** 0 ± 0.0
90 days post exposure
0 mg/m3 15.68 ± 5.65 2.30 ± 4.87 1.83 ± 0.75 6.46 ± 4.20
0.05 mg/m3 18.40 ± 3.69 7.12 ± 4.43* 2.21 ± 2.25 10.20 ± 8.39
0.25 mg/m3 21.38 ± 6.63* 12.38 ± 9.33** 4.46  ± 1.54** 9.82 ± 8.16
5.0 mg/m3 24.64 ± 7.28** 4.63 ± 6.38 9.03  ± 2.28** 21.74  ± 24.45*
FEMALE
24 h post exposure
0 mg/m3 7.74 ± 2.90 1.34 ± 1.78 0.77 ± 0.20 7.15 ± 9.35
0.05 mg/m3 6.31 ± 3.24 0.78 ± 1.27 0.80 ± 0.37 6.44 ± 10.70
0.25 mg/m3 13.48 ± 5.58 0.06 ± 0.18 6.53  ± 7.33** 11.94 ± 11.61
5.0 mg/m3 13.81 ± 7.47** 0.57 ± 1.81 7.68  ± 1.35** 13.16 ± 17.70
90 days post exposure
0 mg/m3 16.83 ± 4.57 13.41 ± 11.01 2.12 ± 0.85 9.94 ± 6.86
0.05 mg/m3 15.63 ± 4.22 8.00 ± 3.54 1.89 ± 0.66 9.52 ± 10.59
0.25 mg/m3 16.42 ± 3.66 4.98 ± 5.00 4.54  ± 1.33** 6.75 ± 8.24
5.0 mg/m3 24.57 ± 5.42** 1.46 ± 3.60 11.16  ± 4.91** 4.49 ± 6.54
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; statistical significant differences to controls
  2. # mean value higher than mean + 2sd of the corresponding control group are in italic characters