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Table 4 Summary of cellular responses to Ag ENMs with different surface charge and chemical composition

From: Impact of nanosilver on various DNA lesions and HPRT gene mutations – effects of charge and surface coating

Surface charge: Negative Neutral Positive
Surface chemical composition: Citrate SDS Disperbyk Tween Chitosan Byk
Intercellular localisation Cytoplasm 24 h + + + + + +
Nucleus 24 h - - - - + +
Mitochondria 24 h - - - - + -
Cytotoxicity Cells morphology 2 h - - - - + (s) +
24 h + + - - + (s) +
Trypan blue exclusion 2 h - - - - + ++
24 h - - - - ++ ++
Relative Growth Activity 24 h ++ ++ - ++ +++ +++
Genotoxicity and mutagenicity Comet assay – Strand breaks 2 h +     ++ ++
24 h ++ + ++ + (x) (x)
Comet assay – Oxidative DNA lesions 2 h +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++
24 h +++ ++ ++ +++ (x) (x)
HPRT gene mutation 24 h ++ (s) + + ++ (s) + ++
  1. The relative tendency of each Ag ENMs to induce cellular responses related to uptake, viability, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity after 2–24 h exposure
  2. (−) no harmful effects were observed in any of tested concentrations
  3. (+) indicates a significant increase in the intracellular event in one from three-five tested concentrations/localisation in selected cells compartments/change in cells morphology
  4. (++) indicates a significant increase in the intracellular event in two-three from three-five tested concentrations
  5. (+++) a significant increase in the intracellular event in one from four-five tested concentrations
  6. (s)- Toxic effect of Ag ENMs stabilizers
  7. (x)- Fully biological effect could not be evaluated due to strong method saturation