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Table 1 Recommended stereological parameters in different histopathological lesions potentially associated with particle and fiber toxicology

From: Assessing particle and fiber toxicology in the respiratory system: the stereology toolbox

Lung pathology Histopathology Stereological parameter
Pulmonary inflammation Inflammatory cells Number of inflammatory cells
Apoptotic cells Number of apoptotic cells
Cell proliferation Number of proliferating cells
Pulmonary edema (septal, interstitial, alveolar) Volume of edematous fluid
Thickening of air-blood barrier Mean thickness of epithelium, interstitium and endothelium in air-blood barrier (EM)
COPD Emphysema (I) Number of alveoli
Emphysema (II) Volume of alveolar airspace
Emphysema (III) Alveolar surface area
Septal thickening Mean septal thickness
Broncho-epithelial cell hyperplasia Mean broncho-epithelial thickness
  Mucous cell metaplasia Mucus per epithelial basement membrane
Inflammatory cell infiltration Number of inflammatory cells
Asthma/allergic airway disease Lymphocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil, Mast cell Number of inflammatory cells
Mucous cell metaplasia Mucus per epithelial basement membrane
Smooth muscle cell mass Volume of smooth muscle cells
Fibrosis Fibroblast hyperplasia Number of fibroblasts
Inflammatory cell infiltration Number of inflammatory cells
Septal thickening Mean septal thickness
Tissue scarring Volume of non-functional parenchyma
Collagen deposition Volume of parenchymal collagen
Cancer Cell proliferation Number of proliferative cells
Tumor cell characteristics Number of cells positive for tumor marker
Metastasis (I) Volume of metastasis
Metastasis (II) Number of metastatic nodules